Development status of four emerging medical technology industries
Release date: 2019-12-27 Views: 0
With the advancement of modern medicine and the improvement of medical standards, while the treatment technology and drug research and development capabilities continue to improve, it also increasingly depends on the advancement of medical detection technology. The development of medical detection technology involves the interdisciplinary development of biology, chemistry, electronics, mechanics, optics, artificial intelligence and other disciplines. With the development of medical detection technology in various fields, new detection technologies continue to emerge. The application of new technologies such as molecular diagnostics POCT, gene chip, liquid biopsy, and mass spectrometry has greatly promoted the improvement of current medical technology.
Molecular diagnostic POCT
Molecular diagnostics is currently the field with the highest content of in vitro diagnostic technology. Its high accuracy and sensitivity are important components of accurate detection, and its core is genetic testing. POCT (point-of-care testing) refers to clinical testing and bedside testing performed next to the patient. It is currently a popular direction for the development of in vitro diagnostics. It has the characteristics of small sample usage, simple operation and fast detection. In particular, the development of microfluidic chip technology provides better development space for the development of POCT.
With the development of detection technology and the increase in detection needs, especially the development of precision medicine, the combination of molecular diagnosis and POCT has become a future development trend. Through the integrated platform, convenient sampling and timely detection can complete the processing and analysis of samples within 2 hours, so that the genetic testing has the characteristics of even the test, and achieve accurate and rapid genetic testing.
Due to the high difficulty of molecular diagnostic POCT technology, the number of companies in this field is limited. Danaher, Roche, BioMérieux, and Abbott are the main foreign countries, while Wanfu Bio, Haier Bio, etc. are invested in companies with relevant technologies layout. With the development of cutting-edge technologies such as microfluidics, combined with the development of precision medicine and graded diagnosis and treatment, the market potential of molecular diagnostic POCT products will gradually be released.
Table 1 Domestic and foreign molecular diagnostic POCT companies and products
A gene chip is a technology in which a target nucleotide probe with a known sequence is fixed on a vector, and a target nucleic acid sequence is obtained by hybridization and sequencing. The gene chip has a high degree of automation, high detection efficiency and increasing detection throughput, but the cost is relatively high. Like protein chips, gene chips also have solid-phase and liquid-phase chips.
The solid-phase chip is the mainstream technology applied, which is to sequencely fix gene probes on supports such as silicon wafers and slides to form a two-dimensional nucleic acid array. PerkinElmer, Boao, Bode Gene, etc.
Liquid phase chip
The liquid-phase chip is rarely used. The main purpose is to immobilize genetic probes on high-molecular microspheres such as fluorescently encoded polystyrene. Different fluorescently encoded microspheres can be used to achieve index classification and high-throughput analysis. Luminex can have up to 500 types of microspheres. Although there are also manufacturers in China, the progress is slow.
As the number of hospital admissions continues to increase and the requirements for inspection automation increase, the demand for high-throughput detection is also increasing. The high-throughput detection provided by gene chips can not only provide high-precision detection, but also The ability to test multiple indicators simultaneously also reduces the amount of samples used, greatly reducing the workload of inspection. Through reasonable configuration of different inspection index combinations to meet a large number of inspection needs, it will certainly become the trend of inspection in the future.
Liquid biopsy is a new technology developed in recent years. It detects disease by detecting information about tumors and other diseases contained in blood and body fluids.
Because blood contains shed tumor cells and nucleic acids and other molecules released after tumor cells die, liquid biopsy mainly uses cell detection and gene sequencing technologies to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), exosomes, Protein markers and circulating RNA. It is mainly used in early screening, prognosis, personalized treatment, disease detection, medication guidance, and non-invasive prenatal detection of tumors.
Compared with traditional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is less invasive, reproducible, and highly accurate. Liquid biopsy samples are blood and body fluids. The collected sample information is not limited to the disease site, but also includes other sites where metastasis may occur. The obtained disease information is more comprehensive, thereby providing a more detailed molecular map of the disease. Moreover, the sampling is simple and the detection risk is small.
However, because the testing cost is still not low, and the different sample processing and testing methods of different companies will affect the data and result in different testing results; and due to different disease types, development periods and other factors, the sample information content will be different, And the occurrence of false negative and false positive results have a certain impact on the development of liquid biopsy.
Although there are many problems, in the long run, with the maturity of technology, the development of standardization of detection technology, and the development of multi-gene combined detection, liquid biopsy will be used more and more as an alternative to tissue biopsy in clinical applications. At present, there are more than 100 companies carrying out related businesses, and many of them have been listed.
Table 2 Listed companies related to liquid biopsy
The development of mass spectrometry has a century of history, and it has continuously expanded from the original analytical chemistry field to other fields. In recent years, it has become more and more widely used in the field of biomedicine. Applications include biochemical testing, microbiological testing, molecular biological testing, immunological testing, intraoperative testing, and the application of standardized testing.
Table 3 Application of mass spectrometry in clinical tests
Mass spectrometry has the characteristics of high specificity, high sensitivity, small amount of test samples, high throughput, high efficiency, and fast. The detection concentration of many detection items can reach pg / ml, which can perform multi-index determination on the same sample at the same time. There are unique advantages in the detection of major diseases. It can be used for blood, sputum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and pleural effusion.
The United States and other developed countries have been widely used in medical examinations, and there are hundreds of clinical testing items. China is in its infancy, with more than 70. At present, the mass spectrometry detection institutions include Quest and Labcorp in the United States, Jinyu Medicine and Dean Diagnostics in China (Kelly Spectrum).
The progress of mass spectrometry technology benefits from the continuous development of mass spectrometers. Mass spectrometers that can perform biological detection include: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MSI) MS-MS), and the latest ESI-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometer (ESI-QTOF).
Table 4 Mass spectrometry system with registration certificate
Although the mass spectrometry technology also has limitations such as low automation and false positive detection, but with the continuous development and improvement of related technologies and new applications, especially the establishment of fully automatic preprocessors and intelligent detection platforms, basic and clinical transformation With the deepening of research, mass spectrometry technology may bring new changes to the field of medical testing, and it will play a wider application in early preventive detection of diseases.
In summary, the innovative development and application of medical testing technology has greatly improved the ability to detect, prevent and treat diseases, and promoted the development of precision medicine. In addition to the above, with the development of artificial intelligence and big data, applications such as intelligent care platforms and AI for brain scan analysis have gradually emerged, which will further promote the development of medical inspection technology and medicine in the future.
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